Myelin on the nerve fibers (axons) is arranged like beads on a necklace. The cells that make myelin are called oligodendrocytes. Each of these oligodendro-cytes sends up to two dozen tentacle-like arms to jelly roll-like nodes of myelin separated by little gaps. Myelin is very important because it helps fibers save 99% of the energy that they would otherwise have to expend. Damage to myelin alone results in messages becoming blocked at the site of damage.
Inflammation itself can damage the nerve fiber directly, although there is almost always accompanying myelin damage. Recovery from an attack of MS, at least early recovery, is probably the result of inflammation subsiding. Repair to the axon and myelin may occur within limits.